The Krishna River (Marathi: कृष्णा नदी, Kannada: ಕೃಷ್ಣಾ ನದಿ, Telugu: కృష్ణా నది) is one of the longest rivers in central-southern India, about 1,400 kilometres (870 mi). It is also referred to as Krishnaveni in its original nomenclature. The Krishna River is the third longest river in India after the Ganges and the Godavari.
Krishna river originates at Mahabaleswar near the Jor village in the extreme north of Wai Taluka, Satara District, Maharashtra in the west and meets the Bay of Bengal at Hamasaladeevi (near Avanigadda) in Andhra Pradesh, on the east coast. It flows through the state of Karnataka before entering Andhra Pradesh. The delta of this river is one of the most fertile regions in India and was the home to ancient Satavahana and Ikshvaku Sun Dynasty kings. Vijayawada is the largest city on the River Krishna. Sangli is the biggest city on the river Krishna in Maharashtra state.
Ecologically, this is one of the disastrous rivers in the world, in that it causes heavy soil erosion during the monsoon season. It flows fast and furious, often reaching depths of over 75 feet (23 m). Ironically, there is a saying in Marathi (language of Maharashtra) "Santh vaahate Krishnamaai" which means "quiet flows Krishna". This term is also used to describe how a person should be, as quiet as Krishna. But, in reality, Krishna causes a high degree of erosion between June and August. During this time, Krishna takes fertile soil from Maharashtra, Karnataka and western Andhra Pradesh towards the delta region.
Tributaries - उपनद्या
The largest tributary of the Krishna River is the Tungabhadra River, a stream formed by the Tunga River and Bhadra River downstream of their sources in the Western Ghats of Karnataka. However, though the Tungabhadra is its largest tributary, the Krishna has many other tributaries, including the Kudali River, the Venna River, the Koyna River, the Bhima River, the Malaprabha River, the Ghataprabha River, the Yerla River, the Warna River, the Dindi River, the Paleru River, the Musi River, the Urmodi River, the Tarli River, and the Dudhganga River.
The rivers Venna, Koyna, Vasna, Panchganga, Dudhagana, Ghataprabha, Malaprabha and Tungabhadra join the Krishna on its the right bank, while the Yerla River, the Musi River, the Munneru River, and the Bhima River join the Krishna on its left bank.
There are four rivers that join the Krishna at a confluence known as Preeti Sangam, or "Lover's Meeting Point" in the Satara District.
- Venna river is the first river joining Krishna river at Sangam Mahuli, Satara.
- Urmodi River (उरमोडी नदी) is second river joining Krishna river at Kashil (काशीळ), Satara.
- Tarli River (तारळी नदी) is third river joining Krishna river at at Umbraj (उंब्रज) Satara.
- And then Koyna river joining Krishna river at Karad (कराड)Satara.
Three tributaries meet Krishna river near Sangli. Warana river meets Krishna river near Sangli at Haripur. This spot is also known as Sangameshwar. Panchganga river meets Krishna river at Narsobawadi near Sangli. These places are very holy. It is said that Lord Dattatreya spent some of his days at Audumber on the banks of river Krishna. Sangameswaram of Kurnool district in Andhra Pradesh is a famous pilgrim center for Hindus where Tungabhadra and Bhavanasi rivers join krishna. Sangameswaram temple is now drowned in the Srisailam reservoir, and visible for devotees only during summer when the reservoir's water level comes down
The main tributaries of Krishna river are
- Bhima river in Maharashtra and Karnataka
- Sina river
- Nira river
- Mula-Mutha river
- Mula river
- Mutha river
- Chandani river
- Kamini river
- Moshi river
- Bori river
- Man river
- Bhogwati river
- Indrayani river
- Kundali river
- Kumandala river
- Ghod river
- Bhama river
- Pavna river
- Malaprabha river
- Ghataprabha river
- Varna or Warna river
- Koyna river
- Venna river
- Munneru river in Andhra Pradesh
- Akeru river in Andhra Pradesh
- Paleru river in Andhra Pradesh
- Musi river in Andhra Pradesh
- Bhavanasi river in kurnool district
- Tungabhadra river
- Vedavathi river
- Suvarnamukhi river
- Veda river
- Avathi river
- Varada river
- Tunga river
- Bhadra river
- Vedavathi river
The Krishna River is spanned by several bridges along its course, some of which are listed below.
- Krishna Bridge, Wai, Maharashtra - This bridge, which is located in the Dharmpuri Peth area of the town of Wai, is one of the oldest bridges that were built by the British in all of India. It spans the Krishna over nine kamans (arches) and is made of black rock. The bridge serves as a flood mark (when the water rises to the level of the road on the bridge) for the "Waikar" people.
- Irwin Bridge, Sangli - This is one of the oldest, historic and largest bridges over the Krishna that were built by the British. The Irwin Bridge, which is built of reddish stone, has two passages where one can climb down to the river in the middle of its span to view the water. Shri Vasantdada Patil, an ex-Chief Minister of Mahashrata and an independence fighter in Western Maharashtra committed suicide by jumping off of this bridge after being chased by the British Army
- B. Soundatti Bridge, Raibag - This is also one of the oldest bridges built during the British rule. This bridge connects Maharashtra to Karnataka state.
Places and temples
The first holy place on the river Krishna is "Dakshin Kashi Wai", known for the Mahaganpati Mandir and Kashivishweshwar temple. It has seven ghats along the river. Temples like Dattadeva temple, which is revered by the people of Maharashtra, is located on the banks of Krishna at Nrusinha Waadi and Audumbar near Sangli. Also, located on the banks of the river Krishna is the Sangameshwar Shiva temple at Haripur and Ramling temple near Sangli, as well as, villages such as Jihe.
Popular pilgrim spots like Audumbar and Nrusinha Waadi are located on the banks of river Krishna near Sangli in Maharashtra state. Yalgur which is 0.5km away from the river Krishna on the right side of bank of river Krishna in Bijapur district Karnataka which is holy temple of Shri Yalguresh Shree Kshetra Yalgur Shri Yalguresh stands in the village of Yalgur on the order of Shri Rama for seven villages. Shri Yalguresh is aptly called so because He, the Lord Hanuman belongs to and is worshiped by the seven villages. Kudalasangama is located near Bagalkot, in Karnataka which is an Aikya linga of Basaveshwara. Srisailam, one of the twelve jyotirlingas, has an ancient temple for Lord Shiva. Sangameswra Swamy temple (seen only during summer) is situated near Atmakur. The international Kalachakra festival was celebrated in the presence of Dalai Lama in Amaravati. Amaravati was the capital of the imperial Satavahanas who held sway over South India for 400 years and also a great seat of Buddhist learning and wisdom. Vijayawada on the left bank of the river has a famous temple situated on Indrakeeladri mountain dedicated to Goddess Kanaka Durga. Mattapally in Nalgonda District and Vedadri in Krishna District, near Jaggaipet are very famous for the two temples of Lord Narasimha on the banks of river Krishna in Andhra Pradesh.
There is big temple of Lord Dattatraya in Kuruvpur village near Maktal of Andhra Pradesh one side and other side Raichur of karnataka is one of the best temple of Dattatraya Swami where he lives for 12 years.
There are many popular temples on Krishna River. Wai is an ancient city located on this holy river. There is "Krushnabai Utsav" celebrated for 1–2 months during January to February on this ghats. This utsav is celebrated because it is said that, Krushnabai gave Victory to Chhatrapati Shivaji Maharaj against Afzal Khan about 350 years ago. There is a big Ganpati mandir constructed in 1764. The other places along the banks of this river are Satara City, Karad, Sangli etc.
Dams on Krishna River
There are many dams constructed across the Krishna river.
- Almatti Dam
- Amar Dam
- Dhom Dam, Maharashtra
- Jurala Dam
- Kanur Dam
- Nagarjuna Sagar Dam
- Narayanpur Dam
- Prakasam Barrage
- Pulichinthala Dam
- Srisailam Dam
Krishna Basin extends over an area of 258,948 square kilometres (99,980 sq mi) which is nearly 8% of the total geographical area of the country. This large basin lies in the states of Karnataka (113,271 km2), Andhra Pradesh (76,252 km2) and Maharashtra (69,425 km2).
The Krishna river rises in the Western Ghats, at an elevation of about 1337 m just north of Mahabaleshwar, about 64 km from the Arabian Sea. It flows for about 1400 km and outfalls into the Bay of Bengal. The principal tributaries joining Krishna are the Ghataprabha, the Malaprabha, the Bhima, the Tungabhadra and the Musi.
Most of this basin comprises rolling and undulating country, except for the western border, which is formed by an unbroken line of the Western Ghats. The important soil types found in the basin are black soils, red soils, laterite and lateritic soils, alluvium, mixed soils, red and black soils and saline and alkaline soils.
An average annual surface water potential of 78.1 km³ has been assessed in this basin. Out of this, 58.0 km³ is utilisable water. Culturable area in the basin is about 203,000 km2, which is 10.4% of the total culturable area of the country.
Mullayanagiri peak, in Karnataka, is the highest point (1,930 m) of the Krishna basin.
In 2009 October heavy floods occurred, isolating 350 villages and leaving millions homeless, which is believed to be first occurrence in 1000 years. The flood resulted in heavy damage to Kurnool, Mahabubnagar, Guntur, Krishna and Nalagonda Districts. The entire city of Kurnool was immersed in approximately 10 feet (3.0 m) water for nearly 3 days.
Water inflow of 1,110,000 cu ft/s (31,000 m3/s)st was recorded at the Prakasam Barriage, which surpassed the previous record of 1,080,000 cu ft/s (31,000 m3/s)recorded in the year 1903.
The ruling Congress government in Andhra Pradesh state attributed the floods to excessive rainfall in the catchment areas of the river upstream of Srisailam dam. However, in the opinion of most experts, and the general public, the floods occurred due to mismanagement on the part of the state government. Influenced by the drought-like situation that had prevailed till the rain event that led to this flood, and to ensure water for irrigation projects in the Rayalaseema region of Andhra Pradesh, the government of the day dithered, while water management experts exhorted it to empty Srisailam reservoir ahead of the expected deluge. This resulted in an unprecedented volume of water backing up behind Srisailam dam, resulting in floods both upstream of the river, and downstream as well, when all the gates of the dam were opened for several days to bring storage at Srisailam back to normal levels. The villages Buggamadharam, Vajinepalli, Vellaturu, and Chintriyala were also effected. Mainly Buggamadharam village is surrounded by fully water on 4 sides. The people of this village were shifted to nearby places of factories for help.
Krishna in Hindu religion
This river is revered by Hindus as sacred. The river is also believed to remove all sins of people by taking a bath in this river. There are many pilgrimage places in Maharashtra, Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh on the course of this river.